2009年09月01日

コミュニティと近代化の基礎理解

今日は昨日に引き続き、がっつり中田さんのレクチャーがあった。
その前に昨日のふりかえり。

そこからヴィヴィアナさんが、下記のように問題提起。
「プランインターナショナルでは、農村地域での不公平の是正などに
 取り組んでいるが、今の傾向は農村から都市に人が流れる。
 私もそうだし、リディアもパメラもそう。どう考えればよいのか」

それを受けて中田さんのレクチャー開始。

近代化のシンボルは核家族。
近代化の過程で生まれた余剰はどこに行ったか?
その構造を中田さんの分析から学ぶ。

となりに座っていたパメラさんはしきりに深く頷いていた。
自身の経験から照らし合わせても納得できる、とのこと。

中田さんは続ける。
「農村で人的資源が不足していると開発ワーカーはよく不満を言う。
 しかし、何が誰がそういう状況を創り出しているのか」

中田さんの結論は明確。それを共有して終了。
ジョセフさんから「今日の内容はどこかの本に書かれているか?」
答え「中田オリジナル、どこにもない」。「本を書くべきだ」との声も。
確かに。

上記の話の途中で「家族とコミュニティ」について
グループに分かれてシェア。
日本人がコーディネーターとして各グループに入るが、
研修員のコミュニティの概念にびっくり。
空間だけでなく、人間関係を強くイメージしていた。
日本ではかつての企業社会のようなものかな。

パメラさんは教会もコミュニティと認識していて、
実際にかなり強固なつながりが。病気の時は助けてくれるとか、
困った時にお金を融通しあうことも。
日本での親戚並かそれ以上かも。

最後に釜ケ崎のオリエンテーションをして終了。

Daily Report on September 1,2009
by Justino and Guille

After reading the report on August 31th made by Tokie and Josef, We had a brief discussion on some of the topics raised from our Hiroshima exposure trip such as the aging of the Japanese society, rural communities in Japan, Difficulties in engaging younger generations in rural communities, etc.

This was followed by a workshop activity. We were divided into three groups; each group was coordinated by a Japanese participant. All participants described and worked on the following instructions:
1- Who are your family members?
2- Who are your community members?
3- Differences between community and family in our contexts.

During group discussions many interesting issues, matters and cultural differences came up and made it a very rich activity. When finished, the groups shared the results with the entire class and talked about what is the meaning of a community, the differenses between nuclear and extended family ( which does not exist in some languages), Differences between community and family conepts, the changes in the family due to modernization, etc. In additionto that, we noticed that when the Japanese participants refer to family they consider only the nuclear family (in most of the cases those who live in the same house, in general composed by 3 or 4 people), while for the most of overseas participants the family consept involves more members( in some cases over 80family members).

These reflections guided us to the second part of the session which was held in the afternoon. Nakata-san gave us some facts about modernization, and the starting point was the nuclear family consept in Japan.

As Nakata-san explained to us, the modernization is related with the resource integration by business companies. For example banks accumulate people`s savings and distribute this money by giving loans, comanies that have a big amount of work distrivute it in different part-time employment positions, and same happens with land renting assigned to real state agencies, etc.
He said that private business companies are the main factor of industrialization. This process invloves: capital, market, labor, land, technology and row materials. Business companies need qualified human resources to improve its development, and consequently higher educational levels are required. This process then becomes a king of circle since without company revenues it is nt possible to build schools. This was also a turning point for village families: from traditional households to a smaller family model. Familites need more money to provide a higher education for their children, and for this reason they have fewer children. Moreover, rural communities have a low young population because the yonger generations move to big cities to study and work. Therefore, we can understand the nuclear family as a result as well as a condition of capitalism.

Finally, Waka san facilitated the Kamagasaki field exposure orientation. Kamagasaki is an area located in Osaka. In a 0.6km2 surface area live 25,000 households, 29,000 people and them are day laborers. After providing the context, she illustrated the situation with a very clear hypothetical example: the life history of "Kama-yan". He was vorn in a rural village in 1945 during Japanese baby boom after World War U, and moved to Osaka in 1966. Waka san highlighted some facts on Japan history that affected Kama-yan`s life such as:Korea war(1950), Vietnam war(1963), the rapid economic growth of Japan(1955-1970) with the Yen becoming stronger and an important development of the construction industry (for example the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964 and the Universal Exposition in Osaka in 1970). In 1973 the world suffered a very big oil crisis, and Kama-yan became a day laborer in that year. In 1979 there was a second oil crisis. She explained thatduring 1985-1989 Japan had a certain type of economic situation called bubble economy, in which real state and stock prices greatly inflated. The bubble collased in 1992 and many people lost their jobs or their own small businesses. During that period Kama-yan became a homeless.

Arigato gozaimasu!
Muito Obrigado!
Mushas grasias!
Thank you very much!
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