2009年09月04日

case presentation 2日目

GNH-sangay,Guille
relationship NGO with Government in TIMOR-LESTE-mario
relationship NGO with Government in Minamata-taku
Questions-and-Answers Discussion session-Tokie

GNHではその中身、基準についてなどの話。
NGOと政府の関係性についてはそれぞれの国の事情について話になるも、
全体的にちょっと疲れ気味?

研修も折り返し地点を過ぎ、いよいよ終盤へ。
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2009年09月03日

case presentation 1日目

いままでのディスカッションで上がってきたテーマを
さらに分析すべくケーススタディを行う。

human rights-Roxana
human rights situation in Japan-Waka
Rights-Based Approach-Joseph
Plenary Discussion on morning situation presentation-Roxana
Inequalities-The case of Kenya-Pamela
Plenary Discussion on Inequalities-Waka
Advocasy-Joseph
Questions-and-Answers session-Pamela

今日盛り上がったのはジェンダーについて。
東ティモールでは、結婚の際に男性が女性の家族に
バッファローを送るそうだが、その是非について。
いやぁ、いろいろと意見があるものです。

Recap of September 3.2009

The day started with a welcome to Mike and to Ame. After the class reviewed the previous day`s trip to Kamagasaki area of Osaka sity with a view to noting the lessons learned. The class had visited an area which predominantly hosts men of mostly above 60 years who live on casual labor and have no housing. Most of them sleep on the floor in a big public shelter put up in 1970s by the government. On the second floor of the house is an office of a laborer hiring company to which many companies register and through which they recruit "day laborers" for construction and other menial jobs.

Some of the highlighted lessons were that:

1.Kamagasaki represents one of the negative social by-products of Japanese economic development and modernization, which have caused the dissolution of community and, to some extent, family. Kamagasaki is therefore one of the ironies of developmemt.

2.Every country has its dark side and socio issues to deal with; no country is a utopia.

3.A country can forget the segment of the population on whose back the economy has been built.

4.Kamagasaki is challenge to Japan`s civil society on human rights issues - advocasy.


Rights-Based Approach to Development

RBA had the following highlights: What RBA is; what is it is all about and what it focuses on. It was emphasized that RBA focuses on ensuring that people`s right to development and services are fulfilled by duty bearers and that the people are empowered to have choices, participate and demand for their rights.

What to remember about RBA:

■The core of RBA is identifying the fundamental, or'root' causes, of poverty and a commitment to help confront such causes.

■Root cases are often systemic or structual: at social, government systems, global relations levels and underpinned by vested interests at all levels.

Advocacy

Advocacy is a set of targeted actions or activities in support of a cause or issue undertaken by an individual or a group of individuals and/or organizations working in concert and directed at decision makers to influence changes. It is about speaking up, drawing attention to important issues and influencing or compelling decision makers towards a solution. Other areas covered were how to conduct advocacy: mobilization, sensitization of people, sensitization of people, choosing the issues of focus, choosing the target audience/recipient of message, etc. Networking was given as an important element. Tools/strategies to use included lobbying, petitioning, demonstrations, use of mass media, etc.
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2009年09月02日

釜ケ崎フィールドワーク

朝9時に新今宮駅に集合。
歩いて西成労働福祉センターへ。
かまやんの作者でもあるありむら潜さんに案内してもらう。

リーマンショック以後、仕事は減り、若者は増えたらしい。
ちなみに今日の求人はたったの7件のみ。仕事を求める人はたくさんいるのに。
最近の活動しては職業訓練所。センターの中にひときわきれいな一室ができ、
そこでパソコンをはじめ職業訓練が受けれるらしい。
センターの目的としては土木以外の仕事への転職を目指しているらしいが、
あまりうまくいっていないらしい。やはり土木関係のトレーニングに需要があるそうだ。

その後、サポーティブハウス、ひだまりの家へ。
ここでは住所を取得し、生活保護を獲得する。
ハウスはもともとはドヤ。それを改築したそう。
ひだまりの家では、ヘルスサポートや弁当配布、貯蓄、IDカードの作成、
ボランティアグループの結成などを行っている。
目的は地域貢献、そしておっちゃん達自身が、
自分たちの尊厳を取り戻すこと。
「釜のおっちゃんから普通のおっちゃんへ」が合言葉らしい。

昼ごはんご、西成市民会館へ。
2グル―プに分かれ、釜で活動している人に案内してもらう。

労働福祉センター、病院、NPO釜ケ崎、ドヤ、ふるさとの家、夜間シェルターなどへ。
市民会館に戻り、質疑応答。

面白かったのは、なぜ女性が少ないか。
案内をしてくれた白波瀬さんによると、
第一に全国的にホームレスにおける割合が少ない。だいたい2%以下。
第二に釜ケ崎は全国平均よりも女性が少ないが、それは男性に特化した仕事しかないから。
第三に女性へのサポートはそれなりにあるそう。
   逆に言うと、男性へのサポートが薄い。それは男性は働くべきという意識が
   行政に強くあるかららしい。女性や子どもがそういう危機に直面すれば、
   ある程度は行政が動いてパプリックなサポート網にひっかかるらしい。
こんなところに男女差があったとは。

帰りはサンゲイさんとマリオさんと日本橋にカメラを買いに行く。
家に帰ると以前、書いた原稿が掲載された人権関係の会報が届いていた。
なんとありむらさんの文章も掲載されている。奇遇なこともあるもんだ。
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2009年09月01日

コミュニティと近代化の基礎理解

今日は昨日に引き続き、がっつり中田さんのレクチャーがあった。
その前に昨日のふりかえり。

そこからヴィヴィアナさんが、下記のように問題提起。
「プランインターナショナルでは、農村地域での不公平の是正などに
 取り組んでいるが、今の傾向は農村から都市に人が流れる。
 私もそうだし、リディアもパメラもそう。どう考えればよいのか」

それを受けて中田さんのレクチャー開始。

近代化のシンボルは核家族。
近代化の過程で生まれた余剰はどこに行ったか?
その構造を中田さんの分析から学ぶ。

となりに座っていたパメラさんはしきりに深く頷いていた。
自身の経験から照らし合わせても納得できる、とのこと。

中田さんは続ける。
「農村で人的資源が不足していると開発ワーカーはよく不満を言う。
 しかし、何が誰がそういう状況を創り出しているのか」

中田さんの結論は明確。それを共有して終了。
ジョセフさんから「今日の内容はどこかの本に書かれているか?」
答え「中田オリジナル、どこにもない」。「本を書くべきだ」との声も。
確かに。

上記の話の途中で「家族とコミュニティ」について
グループに分かれてシェア。
日本人がコーディネーターとして各グループに入るが、
研修員のコミュニティの概念にびっくり。
空間だけでなく、人間関係を強くイメージしていた。
日本ではかつての企業社会のようなものかな。

パメラさんは教会もコミュニティと認識していて、
実際にかなり強固なつながりが。病気の時は助けてくれるとか、
困った時にお金を融通しあうことも。
日本での親戚並かそれ以上かも。

最後に釜ケ崎のオリエンテーションをして終了。

Daily Report on September 1,2009
by Justino and Guille

After reading the report on August 31th made by Tokie and Josef, We had a brief discussion on some of the topics raised from our Hiroshima exposure trip such as the aging of the Japanese society, rural communities in Japan, Difficulties in engaging younger generations in rural communities, etc.

This was followed by a workshop activity. We were divided into three groups; each group was coordinated by a Japanese participant. All participants described and worked on the following instructions:
1- Who are your family members?
2- Who are your community members?
3- Differences between community and family in our contexts.

During group discussions many interesting issues, matters and cultural differences came up and made it a very rich activity. When finished, the groups shared the results with the entire class and talked about what is the meaning of a community, the differenses between nuclear and extended family ( which does not exist in some languages), Differences between community and family conepts, the changes in the family due to modernization, etc. In additionto that, we noticed that when the Japanese participants refer to family they consider only the nuclear family (in most of the cases those who live in the same house, in general composed by 3 or 4 people), while for the most of overseas participants the family consept involves more members( in some cases over 80family members).

These reflections guided us to the second part of the session which was held in the afternoon. Nakata-san gave us some facts about modernization, and the starting point was the nuclear family consept in Japan.

As Nakata-san explained to us, the modernization is related with the resource integration by business companies. For example banks accumulate people`s savings and distribute this money by giving loans, comanies that have a big amount of work distrivute it in different part-time employment positions, and same happens with land renting assigned to real state agencies, etc.
He said that private business companies are the main factor of industrialization. This process invloves: capital, market, labor, land, technology and row materials. Business companies need qualified human resources to improve its development, and consequently higher educational levels are required. This process then becomes a king of circle since without company revenues it is nt possible to build schools. This was also a turning point for village families: from traditional households to a smaller family model. Familites need more money to provide a higher education for their children, and for this reason they have fewer children. Moreover, rural communities have a low young population because the yonger generations move to big cities to study and work. Therefore, we can understand the nuclear family as a result as well as a condition of capitalism.

Finally, Waka san facilitated the Kamagasaki field exposure orientation. Kamagasaki is an area located in Osaka. In a 0.6km2 surface area live 25,000 households, 29,000 people and them are day laborers. After providing the context, she illustrated the situation with a very clear hypothetical example: the life history of "Kama-yan". He was vorn in a rural village in 1945 during Japanese baby boom after World War U, and moved to Osaka in 1966. Waka san highlighted some facts on Japan history that affected Kama-yan`s life such as:Korea war(1950), Vietnam war(1963), the rapid economic growth of Japan(1955-1970) with the Yen becoming stronger and an important development of the construction industry (for example the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964 and the Universal Exposition in Osaka in 1970). In 1973 the world suffered a very big oil crisis, and Kama-yan became a day laborer in that year. In 1979 there was a second oil crisis. She explained thatduring 1985-1989 Japan had a certain type of economic situation called bubble economy, in which real state and stock prices greatly inflated. The bubble collased in 1992 and many people lost their jobs or their own small businesses. During that period Kama-yan became a homeless.

Arigato gozaimasu!
Muito Obrigado!
Mushas grasias!
Thank you very much!
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